Kinetic Typography in After Effects | Part 3

Ready to be a kinetic type master? This three part series will teach you everything you need to know to start creating your own kinetic typography masterpieces. In this tutorial we're going to pick up where we left off in part two. We'll be adding those finishing touches to our piece that really bring it together. We'll take a look at some nifty time saving expressions, using a couple of plugins to make our work cooler, adding some camera shake, and creating a dusty particle burst.

There's a ton of info in this three part series, and by the end this tutorial you'll have your very own kinetic typography video and a TON of new skills in After Effects.

Check out the Resources tab for a quick look at MoGraph History with the piece that started it all, MK12's Brazil.

If you have any questions, click over to the Q&A tab to post them. Other students can answer you, and we'll put our team on the case to try and get you a solution ASAP. 

Download Project File

 MK12's Brazil piece

 MK12's website

    00:00:00,308(feet squishing)
    00:00:01,811- [Nervous Man] (breathes heavy) Is he
    00:00:03,274a nutcase?
    00:00:04,107- [Quiet Man] No, he's a rock biter.
    00:00:05,110- [Nervous Man] A rock biter.
    00:00:05,943A rock biter! - Shh!
    00:00:07,526(stone crumbles loudly)
    00:00:11,081(whistle)
    00:00:11,914(digital pings)
    00:00:14,108(heavy digital bass and tones)
    00:00:22,428- Joey here at School of Motion
    00:00:23,884and welcome to the 18 of 30 days of After Effects.
    00:00:27,580This is our final kinetic type video
    00:00:29,692where we are going to finish the project
    00:00:31,314that we started two videos ago.
    00:00:33,432If you haven't watched the first two videos
    00:00:34,858stop what you're doing, don't be silly
    00:00:36,889and go watch those right now.
    00:00:38,279Now in this video I'm going to kind of jump around
    00:00:40,273a little bit more so we can get it done.
    00:00:42,340But I'm also gonna show you some cool tricks like
    00:00:44,414some of the finishing touches that I did
    00:00:46,780to really finesse the video and add some
    00:00:49,061of the cool effects that you saw in the preview.
    00:00:51,709Don't forget to sign up for a free student account
    00:00:53,987so you can grab the project files from this lesson
    00:00:56,596and then dissect the whole thing yourself.
    00:00:58,791Now into After Effects we go.
    00:01:02,245Well here we are with part three of kinetic type.
    00:01:05,538And if you guys notice that I sound a little different today
    00:01:09,644it's because I'm using this new vocal technique
    00:01:12,042called strep throat. (laughs)
    00:01:14,524Which it might make me sound a little older maybe.
    00:01:17,453Maybe a little more mature.
    00:01:19,933So today we are going to finish the kinetic type project.
    00:01:23,504And we're gonna do it a little bit differently
    00:01:25,414than we have in parts one and two.
    00:01:27,404Rather than just keep plodding forward
    00:01:29,766and literally recreating the entire thing
    00:01:32,288what I'm gonna do is start to jump around
    00:01:35,792and show you specific things.
    00:01:37,504And the reason I'm doing that is just because,
    00:01:40,637if you remember from part two we got as far as
    00:01:43,852is he a nutcase?
    00:01:45,684To finish the rest of this most of it is gonna be
    00:01:49,501just using the same techniques we've been doing, right?
    00:01:53,481And let me show you my final comp here.
    00:01:56,852Excuse me, there goes my first voice crack
    00:01:59,369on this tutorial.
    00:02:02,094So looking at this, I wanted to show you guys.
    00:02:04,535This is the actual comp that I animated everything in.
    00:02:08,243And you'll notice it looks just like the comp
    00:02:09,989we've been building.
    00:02:11,002You've got your comp markers up here
    00:02:13,600to help me sync everything.
    00:02:15,471And you've got a lot of different move knolls
    00:02:17,824for the camera moves.
    00:02:19,245And everything else is just built out the exact same way.
    00:02:23,558So I'm gonna dive into some of these pre-comps
    00:02:26,001and talk about specific pieces of this animation
    00:02:29,664that I did and that way we can sort of speed
    00:02:31,860the process up a little bit.
    00:02:34,219So here we go.
    00:02:35,052First thing I wanted to talk about
    00:02:37,305are these strange, glowing fireballs
    00:02:40,189that you may have noticed kind
    00:02:41,324of sprinkled around the animation.
    00:02:44,462So the reason I put those in there was because,
    00:02:47,639and frankly this is probably not a smart thing to do,
    00:02:49,955but it may be a bad habit of mine.
    00:02:52,975Just looking at the composition
    00:02:55,943it felt like it needed something to kind of help
    00:03:00,297draw your eye around the composition.
    00:03:02,208Sometimes when a composition feels flat to me,
    00:03:04,645what I like to do is put a contrasting
    00:03:07,942design element somewhere
    00:03:10,262to kind of help give it a little bit more interest
    00:03:12,990and make it not feel so flat.
    00:03:14,493So,
    00:03:15,958what I though might be cool would be
    00:03:17,421to create these sort of flickering torches or fires.
    00:03:21,771In this scene in the movie takes place in the woods,
    00:03:24,736it's dark and so I thought it maybe made sense
    00:03:27,785to kind of have these little torches kind of
    00:03:29,734sprinkled around to just help give it
    00:03:31,802a little bit of visual interest.
    00:03:34,728So here's how I made those.
    00:03:36,431I'm gonna jump in.
    00:03:38,831And so this is what they look like.
    00:03:41,239All right, they're very simple.
    00:03:43,194But I want to show you guys how I made them just because
    00:03:47,268I think this is a good example of how you
    00:03:49,806can just sort of be clever.
    00:03:51,676And it's better to be clever than
    00:03:54,559good, I guess. (laughs)
    00:03:56,186So this is how I made these, each one of these.
    00:03:59,440There's basically just four circles.
    00:04:01,351So if I solo one of these and I preview it,
    00:04:03,946it's just a circle moving in a circle.
    00:04:06,217And the way I did that is I made a shape layer.
    00:04:09,800Actually this is a solid with a mask on it,
    00:04:11,719but you could use the shape layer, it doesn't matter.
    00:04:14,442And I offset the anchor point.
    00:04:16,237You'll notice it's not in the center of the circle.
    00:04:19,453And the reason I did that is because now
    00:04:21,526by rotating this
    00:04:23,720it appears to kind of shift around
    00:04:25,794instead of just not doing anything.
    00:04:28,193Which is what would happen if you rotated a circle
    00:04:30,709with the anchor point right in the middle.
    00:04:33,352So the way I'm rotating this is with an expression.
    00:04:36,683Whenever I need something to rotate or move
    00:04:39,367at a constant speed, I use this expression,
    00:04:43,193time times a number.
    00:04:45,716And then in this case I also added a number to it.
    00:04:48,522Now the reason I did that is because I have
    00:04:50,599four circles here.
    00:04:52,473They're all rotating at the same speed.
    00:04:54,793Some of them are rotating at 300, some of them
    00:04:56,753are rotating at negative 300.
    00:04:59,281But I didn't want any of them to line up
    00:05:01,399and be in the same place.
    00:05:03,641So that's why I added an extra number to it.
    00:05:06,727That number's like an offset.
    00:05:08,350You could just think of it like that.
    00:05:10,056So now with two of these circles,
    00:05:12,492let me deselect it so it doesn't give you a headache.
    00:05:15,825So now you can see these two circles
    00:05:17,491they are rotating in opposite directions and they're offset.
    00:05:20,389So they're not,
    00:05:21,832they don't feel like they are in sync with each other.
    00:05:25,481I also have an expression on the opacity of each layer.
    00:05:29,623And I have a very simple expression it's just wiggle.
    00:05:33,115And the wiggle expression, this is a cool one.
    00:05:35,433You can type this in on any property in After Effects
    00:05:39,387that allows for key frames.
    00:05:41,628And what this does is it basically takes
    00:05:44,194whatever value you've put in there,
    00:05:46,354so right now my opacity of this layer is set to 25.
    00:05:50,990So when you type in wiggle and then in parenthesis
    00:05:53,798you put two numbers, the first number is the frequency.
    00:05:57,411So my frequency is eight.
    00:05:58,999And this is measured in times per second.
    00:06:02,333So I'm wiggling the value by eight times per second
    00:06:06,643by a value of up to 10.
    00:06:09,645It's sort of the maximum amount.
    00:06:12,206So what this means is eight times per second
    00:06:14,195this value will change.
    00:06:16,025And because it's initially at 25 and my amount is 10,
    00:06:20,538it could be as low as 15 or as high as 35.
    00:06:23,908And if move my play head around and you look at this number
    00:06:27,573you'll see that it really does fluctuate
    00:06:30,505eight times per second by that amount.
    00:06:32,014And so all that's doing is it's sort of making it flicker.
    00:06:36,967And just to show you if I
    00:06:38,961turn this layer off for a minute,
    00:06:40,714if I had the wiggle set to one time per second,
    00:06:44,046you can still see it changes but it's a lot smoother.
    00:06:46,403If I set it to 24 times a second it's changing every frame.
    00:06:51,564So by setting it to eight times per second it flickers,
    00:06:54,212but there's still a little bit of smoothness to it.
    00:06:57,547And I sort of just experimented with these values
    00:07:00,398to figure out which ones I liked.
    00:07:02,716And you do that four times and you get something like this.
    00:07:05,761Each of these circles is set to linear light mode.
    00:07:09,419And I just kind of went through every single mode.
    00:07:13,478Here's a cool trick maybe you guys didn't know this.
    00:07:16,488When I made these they were set to normal.
    00:07:19,293And I wanted to try each of these transfer modes
    00:07:22,831to see which one was gonna work the best.
    00:07:25,352So and I knew it was probably gonna be one
    00:07:27,634of these modes here or one of these modes.
    00:07:30,866So I could say okay add,
    00:07:34,168lighten,
    00:07:35,997screen.
    00:07:37,013But of course there's a shortcut.
    00:07:39,212If you select all these layers and you hold shift
    00:07:42,711and then you hit the minus or the plus key
    00:07:45,229on the top row of your keyboard on the number pad,
    00:07:48,397it will cycle between transfer modes.
    00:07:51,323So this way I can quickly sort of figure out,
    00:07:53,885"Ah, this one looks good."
    00:07:55,470Right and you can just quickly kind of cycle between them
    00:07:58,247and see what works.
    00:07:59,864So that's a neat little keyboard shortcut.
    00:08:02,137And there you go.
    00:08:02,970So now we have that and then in the main comp,
    00:08:06,406let me find one of these here,
    00:08:09,007like this one up here.
    00:08:12,388So if I solo this
    00:08:14,656you can see I have some effects on here.
    00:08:17,791This is actually just my way of making
    00:08:21,089a quick and dirty glow.
    00:08:23,708I don't actually ever use the glow effect.
    00:08:27,246And I have another tutorial called
    00:08:29,483Better Glows in After Effects where I
    00:08:30,696talk about this technique.
    00:08:31,922So watch that if you want to learn how to do this.
    00:08:35,339But pretty much all I'm doing is,
    00:08:36,885I'm blurring my layer
    00:08:39,446and then I'm using the CC composite effect
    00:08:42,332to composite the original back over the blurred version
    00:08:46,437and it creates a glow.
    00:08:48,023And so you can see if I move this here,
    00:08:51,082this is what the layer looks like.
    00:08:53,768And then you blur it and use CC composite
    00:08:56,453and you get a quick glow.
    00:08:57,672So very handy.
    00:08:59,951Very handy.
    00:09:00,784All right so those the torches.
    00:09:02,998All right so then as we scrub through
    00:09:04,711we got to this part in the last video
    00:09:08,170and so all I've done
    00:09:10,570after this is I have another copy of the footprints
    00:09:14,324sort of start to walk over.
    00:09:15,872And then you see the next character say,
    00:09:17,674"No, he's a rock biter."
    00:09:20,241This type animation is very, very simple.
    00:09:22,884So let's jump into that precomp
    00:09:24,313and I'll show you what I did.
    00:09:26,880So,
    00:09:28,588the words literally just pop on
    00:09:31,387and sort of float up into place.
    00:09:33,951And I animated these words a little differently
    00:09:37,576on purpose because this character is not,
    00:09:42,129he's got a different personality than the first character,
    00:09:44,527the first one who says, "Is he a nutcase?"
    00:09:46,313Is this kooky, hair-brained mad hatter looking guy.
    00:09:51,495And this guy actually is dressed very proper
    00:09:55,157and he's got this like long coat on.
    00:09:58,012And so I thought he would speak a little differently
    00:10:01,014and so I was sort of trying to make the character
    00:10:03,289of his animation match his character.
    00:10:07,151It sounded really silly.
    00:10:08,166So to make these words do that, it's very simple.
    00:10:11,709I literally just animated the Y position with
    00:10:15,250simple sort of you know,
    00:10:16,676no easing out of the first key frame but
    00:10:19,930a nice ease into the second key frame.
    00:10:22,289And if you'll notice they just appear.
    00:10:24,769If I go back one frame and then forward
    00:10:26,966the words just appear.
    00:10:29,413You know sometimes when you're starting out
    00:10:31,045in After Effects you really want everything to
    00:10:34,011animate on from nothing to fully visible.
    00:10:37,718And you don't always have to do that.
    00:10:39,557You can sometimes just pop things on,
    00:10:41,308especially when you're doing kinetic type
    00:10:42,930and you've got characters or voiceover
    00:10:45,898that's talking really quickly.
    00:10:48,864You can save yourself a lot of time
    00:10:50,406by just popping things on.
    00:10:53,656No, he's a, and then rock biter, literally
    00:10:56,417those two words don't even move they just pop on.
    00:11:01,582What I did was I created in Illustrator this rock.
    00:11:05,001And I created two copies of it.
    00:11:06,385One is a full rock.
    00:11:09,390And the other one has this bite taken out of it.
    00:11:12,398And I'll hop over into my Illustrator file
    00:11:15,611and I'll show you.
    00:11:16,444Right, so here's the whole rock.
    00:11:19,389Here's the bitten,
    00:11:21,385bitten, yes the bitten rock.
    00:11:23,055And then these are little shards of rock that I made.
    00:11:27,005So if we pop back here.
    00:11:28,552If you look down here you can see this layer here
    00:11:31,274this is the rock and it just sort of floats up into frame.
    00:11:35,345There's a wide position and a rotation key frame on it
    00:11:38,150that's it, it just sort of floats up.
    00:11:40,588Piece of cake.
    00:11:42,298When it gets to this frame where the word biter appears
    00:11:46,118I just swap out this layer,
    00:11:49,245and if I look at the source name.
    00:11:51,316Ah, it's actually not gonna show you, let's see here.
    00:11:54,079It's not gonna show you which one,
    00:11:55,338so right here you can see that this layer ends
    00:11:57,571another layer begins.
    00:11:58,628This new layer is the rock that has
    00:12:00,742the bite taken out of it.
    00:12:02,487And then at the same time I turn on a precomp I made
    00:12:07,536with these shards.
    00:12:08,925And all I'm doing is animating the position scale
    00:12:10,997and rotation of them.
    00:12:13,074Now you'll notice that the position property
    00:12:16,047I have not separated the dimensions on these.
    00:12:19,261And the reason I didn't I will demonstrate for you.
    00:12:24,231Let me turn off all the key frames on one of these.
    00:12:26,830So,
    00:12:28,334here's what I wanted to do.
    00:12:29,472I wanted all of the shards to sort of
    00:12:33,126fly off into space.
    00:12:35,568And then scale down to zero and rotate a little bit.
    00:12:39,390Let's rotate this a little bit like this.
    00:12:41,219And actually before we scale down to zero
    00:12:44,678I want to show you the reason that I haven't
    00:12:46,748separated the dimensions on the position.
    00:12:49,029And that is because if you
    00:12:51,306leave the position property locked X and Y,
    00:12:54,967you gain the ability to bend your
    00:12:58,435position curve like this and create curved animation paths.
    00:13:02,261And you can even do it, if I kind of move the play head
    00:13:06,242to the middle of the animation, I can do it and sort of
    00:13:09,287see interactively where my layer's going to be
    00:13:12,942at that moment.
    00:13:14,608I can even use my pen tool
    00:13:18,189and grab this last key frame and pull the handle
    00:13:20,878out of that one.
    00:13:22,461This makes it a lot easier to get things to move
    00:13:24,504in a curved path
    00:13:27,269if the X and Y dimensions are separated
    00:13:29,243After Effects won't let you do this.
    00:13:31,598Now the only
    00:13:33,878caveat to this is that now you are locked
    00:13:36,974into using
    00:13:39,258the,
    00:13:41,169the speed graph editor.
    00:13:42,841So here's my value graph for my position key frames.
    00:13:46,624And you can see I can select the key frames,
    00:13:48,497but I can't adjust the curve at all.
    00:13:51,628So you can use the speed graph.
    00:13:54,394And the speed graph I don't like to use.
    00:13:56,391Another option is you can create your curved path
    00:14:00,138and then separate the dimensions.
    00:14:01,684But it's gonna mess your curve up a little bit.
    00:14:03,839And you can see now I can't actually change
    00:14:07,054the shape of this curve.
    00:14:08,905This is one of those crummy things about After Effects
    00:14:11,011that, I don't know, maybe someone out there
    00:14:12,963knows a better way.
    00:14:15,145What I usually end up doing is I'll leave the X and Y locked
    00:14:19,357and I'll just suck it up and I'll use
    00:14:21,959the speed graph editor.
    00:14:23,748And the basic way it works is if you select
    00:14:26,429a bunch of key frames and you pull this out
    00:14:29,929it's making all of these values ease in
    00:14:34,619more strongly into this key frame.
    00:14:37,059And if I select these and I push the bezier handle in
    00:14:40,391it's creating less easing out.
    00:14:44,934So you can sort of get the same result,
    00:14:46,789but if you go in and you look at the value curve for these
    00:14:49,270you see that it doesn't work perfectly.
    00:14:51,221It doesn't work as well as just editing the value graph.
    00:14:55,200So actually I'm gonna fix this
    00:14:56,575for the scale and rotation and the position.
    00:14:59,339You're gonna see you get this crummy little,
    00:15:02,552this little elbow here that you don't want.
    00:15:05,875But what are you gonna do?
    00:15:06,708So it's good enough, it's a short little burst animation.
    00:15:10,171And that looks cool.
    00:15:11,879So that's how we created the shards.
    00:15:16,224And there's your, no he's a rock biter animation.
    00:15:19,229All right so let's hop back here.
    00:15:22,478And after that line now we have the crazy guy,
    00:15:27,032the crazy character he says, "A rock biter,"
    00:15:29,274kind of under his breath.
    00:15:31,925And so I animated those words so they would kind of
    00:15:34,320feel like they were being spoken under the breath.
    00:15:36,349Nope, that's not the right layer.
    00:15:39,045Here it is.
    00:15:39,878If we look at this you can see that
    00:15:42,148they just sort of lower and settle
    00:15:43,527into place very softly.
    00:15:45,152And I was trying to animate.
    00:15:46,943That was the word I was thinking of, was softly.
    00:15:49,586So all that's happening is
    00:15:51,619Y position, no easing and then ease in.
    00:15:55,692Same with rotation and they just sort of land in place.
    00:15:59,881Visually I made it small and kind of
    00:16:02,163in a weird spot on the screen so that
    00:16:05,018it really did feel like, oh he's just
    00:16:07,011muttering under his breath.
    00:16:09,048But then here's the big moment, a rock biter.
    00:16:13,761So first let's talk about this big camera move.
    00:16:15,995So it looks like the camera's pulling (rushing sound)
    00:16:18,719100 miles backwards to sort of allow for all the room
    00:16:22,866this line is gonna take up on screen.
    00:16:26,235And the truth is it's actually not moving that far back.
    00:16:29,119It's moving back, you know, a decent amount
    00:16:31,600and it's rotating a little bit,
    00:16:33,385but I'm actually faking a lot of it because
    00:16:38,586one issue that you're gonna have if you have
    00:16:41,031a really big camera move and you have a texture like this
    00:16:44,512that we're creating, remember
    00:16:46,871this background texture here.
    00:16:48,103This is being created with the repetile effect.
    00:16:52,053And the repetile effect works great.
    00:16:55,469And actually if you look when the camera is here
    00:16:59,085this is the actual size of the texture,
    00:17:01,901repetile is repeating it over and over again to create
    00:17:06,508this seamless tile texture behind us, or behind the comp.
    00:17:12,775But already the numbers are very high.
    00:17:15,264I've had to really make a lot of extra kind of texture.
    00:17:20,065And the problem is if I really moved the camera
    00:17:22,750as far back as it looks like it's going
    00:17:24,788I would have to crank these values so high,
    00:17:28,495that it would probably crash After Effects.
    00:17:30,647So what I did was I moved it a decent amount,
    00:17:32,638but at the same time,
    00:17:35,357so here is our, no he's a rock biter.
    00:17:39,914At the same time I did that I scaled that layer down to zero
    00:17:44,551and I rotated it to kind of match what the camera's doing.
    00:17:48,815So that sort of fakes more distance.
    00:17:52,843All right, so you know you simple little,
    00:17:54,840just slight of hand.
    00:17:56,834So let's take a look at this type.
    00:17:58,539This type is animated very much the same way
    00:18:01,626and nutcase was animated, just big, bouncy animation.
    00:18:06,743You know, each word gets a little bit bigger like,
    00:18:09,403you now like his emotion is getting bigger
    00:18:11,836as he finishes his sentence.
    00:18:14,928I duplicated that layer, offset it a little bit,
    00:18:17,456made one a different color,
    00:18:18,592so a lot of the same techniques we've already used.
    00:18:21,922And then at the same time I created these rocks.
    00:18:25,778So each of these little rocks is, you know,
    00:18:28,661one of my Illustrator rocks.
    00:18:30,492And I realized as I started doing this that I actually
    00:18:32,733left the inside of them empty.
    00:18:35,294So I took a white solid and I masked it,
    00:18:37,896just like this to fill in the rock.
    00:18:41,671And so then as, a rock biter appears you get
    00:18:44,636all of these little rocks that kind of spray out.
    00:18:47,976And so I just animated the position
    00:18:49,646and the rotation of them just very simple.
    00:18:52,982Cool, now let's talk about the crack.
    00:18:56,726So the crack, this is something that
    00:18:59,993I spent a little more time probably than
    00:19:01,701is even necessary, but one of the things I wanted
    00:19:04,108to do with this crack was have it animate on.
    00:19:06,587So that it's thinner
    00:19:09,637as it's coming on and then it thickens up
    00:19:12,161the way a real crack wood.
    00:19:13,750And there's always this leading edge of thinness
    00:19:16,028that gets filled in.
    00:19:18,590So let me copy this crack layer into a new comp.
    00:19:23,099So I'll paste the crack layer and, you know,
    00:19:26,027the normal way that I would reveal something like this on
    00:19:30,218would be to make a shape layer, you know that kind of
    00:19:33,637traces the path of it and you see the crack disappear,
    00:19:35,995because
    00:19:37,216I have it set to have an alpha mat which I don't need yet.
    00:19:41,447So let me delete that shape layer.
    00:19:43,767So what I would do is I would just sort of use my pen tool
    00:19:46,087and draw a shape that's you know,
    00:19:49,546roughly
    00:19:51,910the same shape as this crack like this.
    00:19:55,936I would turn off the fill,
    00:19:58,984crank that stroke up so it covers up that shape.
    00:20:02,362All right and I would be very precise.
    00:20:03,990And then I would add
    00:20:07,077a trim pads modifier to the shape layer.
    00:20:10,493And I would just animate the end like this
    00:20:12,771and sort of reveal it on.
    00:20:15,372And then use that as an alpha mat.
    00:20:17,610There's a whole tutorial day one of 30 Days of After Effects
    00:20:20,618where I go over this technique.
    00:20:22,816The problem with it is that you can see the leading edge
    00:20:26,110of the stroke,
    00:20:28,514is a uniformed thickness,
    00:20:30,017it never gets any thinner or thicker
    00:20:32,089and there's no way to make it taper.
    00:20:33,960So a shape layer doesn't give you the control you need here.
    00:20:36,816So what I'm gonna do is a new technique.
    00:20:39,594So I'm gonna make a new layer,
    00:20:41,467we'll just call it mat 01.
    00:20:43,741I'm gonna temporarily make an adjustment layer
    00:20:45,574so I can see through it.
    00:20:48,345And then I'm going to,
    00:20:51,517let me do this full screen make this easier.
    00:20:53,961Now I'm going to trace that crack.
    00:20:59,457And this technique is actually another way
    00:21:02,303of writing something on that
    00:21:04,419I didn't go over in the write on tutorial.
    00:21:06,700So this is kind of another tool now that you guys will have.
    00:21:10,761Okay, here we go.
    00:21:11,933So now I've got a mask on a layer.
    00:21:15,080Now the reason I did it on a layer is because
    00:21:16,998I'm going to use an effect
    00:21:20,294called Trapcode 3D Stroke.
    00:21:22,969Now I apologize for using an effect that you have to buy,
    00:21:25,942but the Trapcode plugins are just so universal
    00:21:29,932and they're everywhere and anywhere you work
    00:21:32,488is probably gonna have them.
    00:21:35,010So it's just a good idea
    00:21:37,369to learn how to use them.
    00:21:39,193And 3D stroke is one of these sort of
    00:21:42,811older effects, I mean I think it's probably 10 years old.
    00:21:47,605It's really powerful, it gives you some cool options
    00:21:50,722that you don't get from normal paths.
    00:21:53,808When you apply the affect it's gonna take
    00:21:55,289whatever mask you have on that layer
    00:21:57,036and it's gonna draw it for you.
    00:21:58,698And you can animate the end like this, okay
    00:22:02,969and it'll let you draw it on.
    00:22:04,780So that's fantastic.
    00:22:05,749So let's adjust the thickness, make it a little bit thicker,
    00:22:08,803make sure it totally covers up the layer we want to reveal.
    00:22:14,898Okay.
    00:22:15,731And you can see that right now
    00:22:16,650we still have the same problem,
    00:22:17,746the entire stroke is the same thickness.
    00:22:20,923But there's a cool option here called taper.
    00:22:22,794And if you enable that
    00:22:24,667it's now, and actually I'm gonna turn off
    00:22:26,171this little switch right here.
    00:22:28,047Which is gonna make our masks invisible temporarily.
    00:22:30,571They're still there, but you just won't see them.
    00:22:33,056And now as I animate this you'll see you get this nice
    00:22:36,439thickening as it moves through the path.
    00:22:40,552Cool, so now I can just put a key frame here.
    00:22:43,072Let's go forward like six frames.
    00:22:45,716'Cause this is a crack it should be happening very fast.
    00:22:49,376And there you go.
    00:22:50,556So now we have a problem which is the beginning of this
    00:22:54,353is now tapered and we don't want that
    00:22:55,935we just want the leading edge,
    00:22:57,766the end of the stroke tapered.
    00:22:59,552So the taper, the end thickness, here we go start thickness.
    00:23:03,141Let's crank that up to 100%.
    00:23:06,047So now the start of thickness will always be
    00:23:10,363you know, fully thick like this.
    00:23:14,406And then it will sort of taper along to the end.
    00:23:18,011And then here at the end it's not thick enough now.
    00:23:21,837So you could just increase the end thickness
    00:23:25,216or I could turn my masks back on
    00:23:27,857and I could just drag the end of this out.
    00:23:30,375And what that's gonna do is it's gonna mean
    00:23:31,597that the mask actually goes out to here.
    00:23:34,439And this is now the thinnest point.
    00:23:36,314So it's still thicker along here.
    00:23:37,901And so now I'm covering up the entire shape.
    00:23:41,031Cool!
    00:23:41,864And it happens very quick.
    00:23:43,474It's very subtle, maybe no one notices,
    00:23:45,796but I thought it was kind of cool.
    00:23:48,094Just another trick for you guys.
    00:23:49,498So I would also then make another mat
    00:23:53,604and I would delete this mask,
    00:23:55,473I would make this new adjustment layer.
    00:23:58,639Let's turn off 3D stroke for a minute.
    00:24:01,369And do the same thing here
    00:24:03,445on this piece of the crack.
    00:24:06,620And I'm being very sloppy here but
    00:24:09,103here we go, let's turn that back on
    00:24:11,303and so now you get.
    00:24:13,502Let's see, oo and turn this off, there we go.
    00:24:16,750All right and then I would just delay
    00:24:18,353this piece of the crack.
    00:24:20,221To like there, there we go.
    00:24:22,701Cool, so now I've got this cool mat
    00:24:26,036made up of two layers and I would select both of them,
    00:24:28,274precomp them, call this crack mat.
    00:24:32,014And then I would set the crack to use that layer
    00:24:34,984as its alpha mat.
    00:24:36,446So now you get that, okay?
    00:24:39,008And it just, it just looks a little nicer I think.
    00:24:42,139You know little details like this.
    00:24:45,068You know if you're working for a studio
    00:24:46,778and you're trying to impress an art director or something,
    00:24:48,848little details like this do stick out.
    00:24:50,803So it's worth the extra time it takes.
    00:24:53,526All right so that's how I animated the crack.
    00:24:56,374And then I used a texture in stencil looma mode
    00:25:00,884with some color correction to just
    00:25:02,721give it a little bit of grit,
    00:25:04,790kind of break it up a little bit.
    00:25:06,782All right so now if we come back here
    00:25:08,331you can see I then took the crack into this composition,
    00:25:11,906duplicated it and the copy that's underneath
    00:25:15,974I put this blue color on and I just sort of
    00:25:18,375offset it a little bit.
    00:25:19,922Just to give it a little bit of depth.
    00:25:22,120All right?
    00:25:22,953So that is the main part of the animation.
    00:25:27,254So then what I did was I took this comp, nes_kinetic
    00:25:31,811and I put is in a new comp.
    00:25:34,095And that's where I did all of this fancy stuff.
    00:25:37,962So.
    00:25:39,427Let's talk about each of these parts.
    00:25:40,765So the first thing that happens is
    00:25:42,681synced up with the crack there's this big,
    00:25:44,712jarring camera move and then the
    00:25:46,250camera shakes a whole bunch.
    00:25:48,288So how do we do that?
    00:25:51,841I used an adjustment layer
    00:25:53,805over the entire comp that has the transform effect on it.
    00:25:56,570That effect is in the distort group.
    00:25:59,905Right down there.
    00:26:01,819And it basically just lets you apply a transform
    00:26:05,202to your entire comp.
    00:26:06,868You could do this with a knoll and parent everything to it,
    00:26:09,632but this is a little bit easier.
    00:26:11,709And so what I did was I did two things.
    00:26:14,391One, I animated the scale property
    00:26:17,962of the transform effect.
    00:26:19,632So when the crack appears we zoom in
    00:26:21,950and I did that by just scaling up this effect here.
    00:26:26,015And since it's an adjustment layer
    00:26:27,966it scales up the entire comp.
    00:26:29,837And then at the end here it scales back down to 100%.
    00:26:35,083I also put expressions on rotation and positions.
    00:26:38,703So let's look at those.
    00:26:40,040They're very simple expressions.
    00:26:42,158The position and the rotation they have the same expression.
    00:26:45,206And it's the wiggle expression.
    00:26:46,553We already talked about the wiggle expression
    00:26:48,504when I showed you how I did the torches.
    00:26:51,471This wiggle expression is slightly different.
    00:26:54,323So remember wiggle takes two numbers,
    00:26:56,476the frequency, which in this case is two,
    00:26:59,124so it's gonna wiggle two times per second.
    00:27:02,214And then it takes the amount.
    00:27:03,805Now for the torches I hard coded the amount
    00:27:06,211into the expression.
    00:27:07,999In this case I didn't want to do that.
    00:27:09,710And the reason is I wanted the wiggle amount to change.
    00:27:13,576And I wanted to be able to control that.
    00:27:15,893So, let me rewrite this expression I'll show you
    00:27:19,909what I did.
    00:27:21,819You'll notice there's these two effects on my
    00:27:24,020shake adjustment layer, P amount and R amount.
    00:27:26,949Both of those effects are actually just slider controls
    00:27:30,289that I've renamed.
    00:27:32,073So P amount is position amount, R amount is rotation amount.
    00:27:35,568So this is how I made this expression.
    00:27:37,561On the position property,
    00:27:40,488option, click the stopwatch, type wiggle
    00:27:44,312in parenthesis.
    00:27:46,388The two is the times per second it will wiggle.
    00:27:50,138And that I want to stay the same.
    00:27:53,306But the amount is what I want to change.
    00:27:55,508So rather than type a number in there
    00:27:57,137I'm gonna grab pick whip and I'm gonna grab this slider.
    00:28:01,571And it's gonna type all this in for me
    00:28:03,200then I'll close my parenthesis.
    00:28:06,004And there's my expression.
    00:28:07,345So now you see on this frame the position amount is zero.
    00:28:12,106So if the amount is zero the wiggle does nothing.
    00:28:15,276Nothing's changing.
    00:28:17,551But here if I look at this property my P amount,
    00:28:22,886it changes on this frame.
    00:28:24,759And now it's up to 50.
    00:28:26,423So now the position, this property here is wiggling
    00:28:30,413by up to 50 pixels twice a second.
    00:28:34,682So that's why we start to get a lot of motion.
    00:28:36,596Now I did the same thing on rotation.
    00:28:40,792Rotation has the exact same property
    00:28:42,630except it's pointing to this slider.
    00:28:45,888And this slider doesn't have to move as much
    00:28:47,632because it's for rotation.
    00:28:50,314And rotation you don't need giant values
    00:28:52,304to get a lot of motion.
    00:28:54,827Okay?
    00:28:55,682So that's it, that's how I'm moving the camera
    00:28:57,267and creating camera shake.
    00:29:00,398So then we've got these three pieces
    00:29:03,116that sort of split and fall away.
    00:29:06,373The way I did that was very, very simple.
    00:29:08,004So here is my precomp that has all the animation in it.
    00:29:13,858On a certain frame when the crack has fully formed
    00:29:17,152and I decided, "Okay this is where I want
    00:29:18,857"the pieces to break apart."
    00:29:20,746I just basically split that layer
    00:29:24,287and made a bunch of copies of it.
    00:29:25,832And if I show you here's one copy.
    00:29:29,532And you can see I just masked it along the crack.
    00:29:33,395Okay?
    00:29:34,984This is a special piece here.
    00:29:36,651Let me show you that in a minute.
    00:29:37,746And then here's another piece, here's another piece.
    00:29:40,877Now what I found was
    00:29:43,766when these three pieces fall away
    00:29:46,293this top piece here felt weird to me,
    00:29:48,045'cause there's this really straight edge at the top.
    00:29:51,013And it didn't feel irregular enough.
    00:29:53,491So I duplicated that piece and flipped it.
    00:29:57,031And have that copy show up at the same time.
    00:30:00,084So that just helped it.
    00:30:01,500It helped it feel a little less regular.
    00:30:04,768There we go.
    00:30:07,166Sometimes you don't want to be regular.
    00:30:09,772Hey hoo!
    00:30:12,413Okay so now, that's how we got the pieces to fall away.
    00:30:17,277And as far as the key frames for those
    00:30:18,974they're really, really simple.
    00:30:22,514Let me pull up one of these here.
    00:30:24,186If you look at the Y position
    00:30:26,344each of the pieces are gonna have a curve
    00:30:27,895basically like this.
    00:30:29,646You're easing out of the first key frame pretty heavily
    00:30:32,499and then you're accelerating all the way to the end.
    00:30:35,640That is what an animation curve looks like
    00:30:37,668when something is falling.
    00:30:39,698Okay, things don't fall and ease towards the ground,
    00:30:43,076they accelerate towards the ground.
    00:30:46,081And now it looks like it's falling.
    00:30:47,168I'm also rotating them each a little bit
    00:30:49,088and moving them on their X position
    00:30:52,013so they fall away.
    00:30:54,085Cool.
    00:30:56,168This sort of extruded looking piece
    00:30:58,362that you're seeing on each one of them,
    00:30:59,908that's just a radial shadow.
    00:31:02,227So let me show you really quickly
    00:31:03,363what a radial shadow does.
    00:31:05,929So here's an ellipse I want to fill it with a color.
    00:31:09,670Get rid of the stroke.
    00:31:11,544So if I wanted to fake an extrusion on this ellipse.
    00:31:16,829You could use an effect like a drop shadow
    00:31:20,611and as long as you don't move the distance too much
    00:31:23,091it can sort of give it a 3D extruded look.
    00:31:26,016But as soon as you move it too far
    00:31:28,249you're gonna start to see the shadow come back in on itself.
    00:31:32,901And drop shadow doesn't let you adjust
    00:31:35,217the size of the shadow, so
    00:31:37,375this is kind of the limits of it.
    00:31:39,489If you grab the radial shadow effect though
    00:31:44,503it works a little bit differently
    00:31:45,551you move the light source around to
    00:31:48,729change the shadow's position.
    00:31:50,724And then you change the projection distance.
    00:31:53,652So you can make a really big shadow
    00:31:55,686and then move the shadow so it sort of
    00:31:57,640lines up with the edges.
    00:31:59,552And you can get a totally different effect.
    00:32:02,523And so that worked a little bit better for these edges,
    00:32:04,749so that's what I did.
    00:32:06,746Used a radial shadow on each piece
    00:32:09,594and I moved the light source position on each piece
    00:32:12,363so that this edge shows up on the bottom.
    00:32:14,922Right, this edge shows up on the top,
    00:32:16,756this one's on the kind of just the right side.
    00:32:19,830So those are the pieces.
    00:32:20,841And now the big finale is how do we get all these
    00:32:23,622nice little dirt particles to pop out.
    00:32:26,673So let me show you that.
    00:32:28,788So the first step in doing that was I needed
    00:32:31,148to create this layer here, crack alpha.
    00:32:34,608Now that's a precomp, let's go look at it.
    00:32:37,294Crack alpha is an exact copy.
    00:32:40,305I literally just duplicated this comp
    00:32:44,011that has all my animation in it.
    00:32:46,043I duplicated it, I renamed it crack alpha
    00:32:49,255and then I deleted every single layer in it except for
    00:32:55,597my camera, all of the knolls that control the camera
    00:32:59,047and the crack.
    00:33:02,338And the reason I did that was because for this technique
    00:33:04,492I needed a precomp
    00:33:06,216that had the exact
    00:33:09,703same crack in it
    00:33:11,982that we see at the end here.
    00:33:14,094And because of the camera's still kind of
    00:33:16,055drifting backwards and it's moving
    00:33:18,583I needed to keep that camera in this comp, too.
    00:33:22,901Okay, so that this comp would have the crack
    00:33:24,892in the exact same position.
    00:33:27,292So here, let me make a new comp.
    00:33:30,057And I'll show you how I did this.
    00:33:34,323So let's copy our crack alpha layer here
    00:33:38,514and let's turn it on and you can see that
    00:33:40,350there's nothing in it until the very end
    00:33:43,066and then the crack appears.
    00:33:45,585So that's where we're gonna preview from.
    00:33:48,308Alrighty, so I'm gonna make a new layer
    00:33:49,931and I'm gonna call this particles.
    00:33:51,965And one more time we're gonna use a,
    00:33:54,814we're gonna use an effect made by Trapcode
    00:33:58,823these have to be the most widely used effects
    00:34:02,560anywhere except for maybe Optical Flares.
    00:34:06,788Particular is the plugin everyone uses
    00:34:09,652for particles in After Effects.
    00:34:12,048There are other ones, but this is the one that
    00:34:15,469just you see everywhere.
    00:34:17,180It's super duper powerful, takes a little while to learn,
    00:34:21,843but if you're serious about being a motion graphics artist
    00:34:24,513you have to learn it at some point.
    00:34:26,464So the default thing it does is it just puts an emitter,
    00:34:29,715particular emitter right in the middle
    00:34:31,548and it spits out particles just like that.
    00:34:34,433Not very interesting, so the first thing we need to do
    00:34:37,533is tell Particular do not emit from a point
    00:34:40,829emit from this layer right here.
    00:34:44,037So I'm gonna go into the emitter settings.
    00:34:47,047And a lot of the settings in Particular
    00:34:48,875are named very appropriately.
    00:34:51,377Once you learn a little bit about it,
    00:34:53,278you'll probably be able to figure a bunch
    00:34:54,915of stuff out on your own.
    00:34:57,068So the emitter type I'm gonna change this to layer.
    00:35:00,034And now that I've done that I need to tell it which layer.
    00:35:02,479So I'm gonna tell the layer emitter setting down here
    00:35:05,490that my layer to use is the crack alpha.
    00:35:09,145So now if we scrub through you'll see no particles,
    00:35:11,226no particles and then when that crack appears
    00:35:14,565you get like four particles.
    00:35:16,722Not very many particles.
    00:35:17,863So let's turn up the number of particles per second,
    00:35:20,386let's crank that up.
    00:35:23,148So now no particles and then
    00:35:25,667particles, look at that!
    00:35:26,723And you can see
    00:35:28,267that they actually animate on
    00:35:30,791from top to bottom like that crack does.
    00:35:34,735Now what's happening is
    00:35:36,243the plugin is using the alpha channel of this precomp
    00:35:40,914to figure out where particles can be born from.
    00:35:44,087And because it animates on it creates particles
    00:35:46,813on this frame only here.
    00:35:49,781But then on this frame it's creating them down here, too.
    00:35:51,940So this is a very cool thing you can do with Particular.
    00:35:55,605So one thing you'll notice right off the bat
    00:35:57,395is the particles do not line up very well to the layer.
    00:36:01,551So what I need to do, the reason that's happening is because
    00:36:05,171the particles are being born with velocity.
    00:36:08,343What that means is they have an inherent motion to them.
    00:36:11,683On the first frame that they exist they are moving.
    00:36:14,893And I don't want that.
    00:36:16,031So what I'm gonna do is turn that velocity down to zero.
    00:36:20,097Turn the velocity random to zero.
    00:36:23,514And then I'm gonna turn the emitter size to zero.
    00:36:26,477The emitter size Z basically lets you
    00:36:29,178spread these things out a little bit if you want to.
    00:36:31,697I don't want to.
    00:36:34,099So there you go.
    00:36:34,932So now,
    00:36:36,250you can see the particles are born,
    00:36:38,856perfectly synced to that crack animation, okay?
    00:36:41,704Now they're too big, they don't look very good
    00:36:44,468and there's probably still not enough of them.
    00:36:46,095So first,
    00:36:47,726let's go to our particle settings.
    00:36:50,736And
    00:36:52,687let's turn the life of them up.
    00:36:54,683So right now when each particle is born
    00:36:57,937it will last for three seconds
    00:36:59,930and then it will disappear.
    00:37:01,637I want to turn this up to like 10
    00:37:04,240and this is just going to ensure that none
    00:37:06,311of the particles actually disappear
    00:37:08,705while I'm looking at them.
    00:37:11,223So next thing is the size.
    00:37:13,014So right now they look humongous,
    00:37:14,475so I want to turn the size down.
    00:37:15,777I'm gonna turn this to like two.
    00:37:17,771So it just looks like little pieces of dust.
    00:37:20,373But I don't want them all to be the same size,
    00:37:22,040so you can also change the size random percentage.
    00:37:25,210So I'll set that to 50%, now they're all
    00:37:27,688slightly different sizes.
    00:37:30,994And now I'm gonna crank up the number of them
    00:37:33,075maybe to like 30,000.
    00:37:36,803Cool, so now we have a nice dense bunch of particles,
    00:37:39,731but they're not moving, they're not going anywhere.
    00:37:42,622And so
    00:37:44,248I want them to fall, you know, like there's gravity
    00:37:48,110and they're kind of being spawned from this crack
    00:37:51,000and then they're falling.
    00:37:52,521Now I can go into the physics tab.
    00:37:55,242And crank up this gravity setting.
    00:37:57,316And I'm not sure what the correct setting is
    00:38:00,244to mimic actual gravity, so I just sort of,
    00:38:03,134you know I just sort of play with it.
    00:38:04,315Like if you put this at 100 and you do
    00:38:07,612a quick little RAM preview,
    00:38:11,682you can see it already looks pretty good,
    00:38:12,953but they're falling very slowly.
    00:38:16,854So you know, this probably needs to be higher.
    00:38:18,769Why don't we try like 500?
    00:38:22,158We'll see what that looks like.
    00:38:24,274There we go.
    00:38:26,309Cool.
    00:38:28,344And I might bring that down a little bit.
    00:38:30,337You know the slower things are falling
    00:38:32,857the bigger that makes the scale of everything seem,
    00:38:35,661because it's like they have to fall further.
    00:38:38,337Cool, so now we've got these nice particles
    00:38:40,335and they fall very naturally.
    00:38:42,790But they have no momentum,
    00:38:44,407they're not moving outwards at all.
    00:38:47,661So remember in the emitter settings
    00:38:49,044I turn the velocity to zero.
    00:38:50,511And the reason I did because if you don't do that
    00:38:54,293they sort of fly every which way.
    00:38:57,181And sometimes that's what you want.
    00:38:58,320In this case that's not what I want.
    00:38:59,498I want them to look like the force that's creating
    00:39:02,264that crack is pushing them at us.
    00:39:04,743So what I need to change is this direction setting.
    00:39:07,262Right now it's uniform.
    00:39:09,537And there's different settings, uniform actually means
    00:39:12,829uniformly whichever direction they choose.
    00:39:15,102So it's kind of random.
    00:39:17,581If I set this to outwards
    00:39:19,618that setting is gonna make the particles sort of
    00:39:21,747appear to come outwards from the center.
    00:39:25,075So if I RAM preview this you'll see that
    00:39:26,621the particles off to the side here
    00:39:28,043kind of get hit and move off to the left.
    00:39:30,975The particles here, they're actually moving towards
    00:39:33,208us in Z space and it's kind of hard to see,
    00:39:35,772but (coughs),
    00:39:38,212excuse me, boy I am sick guys.
    00:39:40,593But you can see that now it looks like
    00:39:41,918there's some momentum to this.
    00:39:43,344And you can crank this up if you want to.
    00:39:45,902And really make it look like a burst.
    00:39:49,166There we go.
    00:39:50,916Cool.
    00:39:51,935Now one other thing we need to set is,
    00:39:56,002you know right now this is just gonna happen forever.
    00:39:59,338And we don't want that, let me turn this velocity down
    00:40:01,787because I don't like that.
    00:40:04,562Let's try 200, there we go.
    00:40:06,955So what I want to happen is this,
    00:40:09,432I want the particles to start forming here
    00:40:13,824and then I want them to stop forming here.
    00:40:17,136So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna key frame this,
    00:40:19,330the particles per second.
    00:40:20,674I'm gonna put a key frame here.
    00:40:22,950And I'm gonna hold command and option and click it
    00:40:24,943and make that a hold key frame.
    00:40:26,811Then I'm gonna go forward and maybe right there,
    00:40:31,132that's where I want the last particle to be born.
    00:40:34,547On this frame I will set it to zero.
    00:40:36,824Because these are hold key frames
    00:40:39,512this value will not change until it hits
    00:40:42,243this key frame and then, boom,
    00:40:43,467it's like a light switch going off.
    00:40:45,419And that's gonna stop anymore particles from forming.
    00:40:49,611And so if you play this back you'll see
    00:40:51,765particles form along the crack and then they stop.
    00:40:55,835And that's it.
    00:40:59,369Cool, so a cool trick you can do with Particular,
    00:41:01,010there's a million more settings you can play with,
    00:41:02,923but that's the basics of how you use a layer
    00:41:06,296to emit particles.
    00:41:08,084So that's what I did.
    00:41:10,279And I turned them white so you could
    00:41:12,227see them over the background.
    00:41:14,584And then the whole thing falls apart and
    00:41:17,060viola, reveals the logo.
    00:41:20,272So there you go we have now walked through
    00:41:22,751every single step.
    00:41:24,825And here's what I hope you guys got out of this.
    00:41:28,889What I really hope is not that you
    00:41:31,413just got some neat tricks that you can try,
    00:41:34,418but what I really hope is that you're actually gonna
    00:41:37,221be able to use some of these strategies
    00:41:40,031to navigate a kinetic type project
    00:41:42,877a little bit easier next time.
    00:41:44,094You know the
    00:41:45,432simple things that aren't super sexy
    00:41:47,182like using layer markers and comp markers.
    00:41:50,233You know, different ways of using expressions
    00:41:52,878and different ways to manage background textures
    00:41:54,954and things like that.
    00:41:56,252All of those little things when you tie them all together
    00:41:58,329it's gonna let you work really efficiently.
    00:42:00,404And when you're doing a project like this
    00:42:01,907that is so key.
    00:42:03,614So I hope you guys learned a lot.
    00:42:04,710I'm gonna stop talking now.
    00:42:06,175And I will see you guys next time on
    00:42:08,41130 Days of After Effects.
    00:42:10,891Thank you so much for watching.
    00:42:12,191I hope this series was really informative.
    00:42:14,549I tried to just jam in as much info as I could
    00:42:16,708and really let you see what it looks like
    00:42:18,699when I'm just approaching a job
    00:42:20,412with kind of a blank canvass.
    00:42:22,205Now if you have any questions or thoughts
    00:42:23,882about this lesson let us know.
    00:42:25,792And if you learned something valuable from the video
    00:42:27,789please share it around.
    00:42:29,417It really helps us spread the word
    00:42:31,369about School of Motion and we truly appreciate it.
    00:42:34,293Don't forget to sign up for a few student account
    00:42:36,528to access all the project files from this lesson
    00:42:39,087plus a whole bunch of other good stuff.
    00:42:41,330Thanks again for watching and I'll see you next time.
    00:42:45,069(digital pings)
    00:42:47,587(heavy digital bass and tones)