School of Motion teamed up with Puget Systems and Adobe to Develop the Ultimate After Effects Computer.
Instead of simply figuring out a way to make After Effects run faster, the team pondered a far more interesting question: Can we build the world’s fastest After Effects computer? We laughed, caught our breath, and then that look came across everyone’s eye. The same look that inspired Experiment Fail Repeat and the $7 vs $1K Experiment. As sure as Kilimanjaro rises like Olympus above the Serengeti, this project was going to happen…
It was clear that we were about to go on a journey - a quest to build the world’s fastest After Effects computer. We enlisted the help of director Mike Pecci to document the process and the result is this sleek video, in-depth article, and computer building guide.
Along the way we had help from our friends at Puget Systems and Adobe. This turned out to be an epic project that exceeded our expectations. It was full of geeky terms, puns, and coffee...so much coffee. We hope you find the results to be helpful and fun. Enjoy!
Editors Note: We were not paid by Puget Systems to create this content. We simply love the work they do and believe they are a fantastic resource for Motion Designers.
Below is a collection of everything we learned from the experience. Let’s take a journey together and see what it takes to create the ultimate After Effects computer...
A Quick Computer Component Overview
We totally understand if hardware isn’t your strong suit. So before we go too far let's stop to chat a little bit about what each hardware component does in After Effects.
CPU - CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
A CPU, or central processing unit, is the brain of your computer. In a way, a CPU is a lot like the engine on your car...but instead of horse-power, CPUs are measured in Gigahertz (GHz). Generally, the more GHz your CPU is capable of computing, the faster your computer will perform in After Effects.
The number of cores a CPU has refers to its ability to multitask. Think of it as the passengers in the car. If there is just a driver, they can perform a single task (driving—or possibly driving AND eating a breakfast burrito, the perfect driving snack). Add in more passengers, and now you can drive, adjust the radio, check the map, sing car karaoke, and knock out a game of I Spy.
There have been some major shifts lately in CPU technology. Up until recent times you could really only buy CPUs with Dual (2) or Quad (4) cores, but Moore’s Law seems to have set in and we are finding CPUs now with as many as 64 cores. We’ll talk more about how this relates to After Effects below.
GPU - GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT
A GPUor video card is a different type of processing unit that—in the past—was simply used to draw what you see on your monitor. However, in recent years many applications have begun to leverage it to do real processing tasks. Whereas a CPU might have a few cores built into the processor, GPUs can have thousands of cores capable of processing a huge number of program instructions at a time.
Video cards also have variable amounts of dedicated memory on the card called vRAM. The more vRAM you have, the more information your video card can process.
RAM - RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
RAM is quick storage that your computer can use to read and write data. RAM is a faster way to store information (like previewed frames) than a disc cache (more on that below). RAM is a temporary location into which After Effects can put working files. In general, the more RAM you have, the more frames you can store in memory, and the faster After Effects will run.
Hard Drive & Storage
Storage devices currently come in three main flavors:
- HDD: A Hard Drive Disc (Slow, cheap, mass storage)
- SSD: A Solid State Drive (Fast and a little expensive)
- NVMe: Non-Volatile Memory Express (Super fast and a bit more expensive)
All of these drives can be used in After Effects—but if you’re serious about speed, you really only need to stick with SSD or NVMe drives. For After Effects, speed is preferred to size. You can always backup your files on a slower drive after your project is complete.
Ideally, After Effects systems will use up to 3 different hard drives for a single project. One to store your applications (OS/software), one to store your project files, and one to write preview files (called a disc cache). You don’t have to have multiple hard drives when working in After Effects, but as you’ll soon learn it’s important to separate out your hard drives to increase performance.
How Fast is the Average After Effects Computer?
The first step to building the ultimate After Effects computer is to figure out what the average worldwide benchmark scores are. So to help us gather some information about the hardware speed of professional motion design computers, we sent out a poll to our community asking them to run the Puget After Effects Benchmark on their computer. Scores were all over the place, but in general the scores at the top were from systems that were created using specs from Puget's website (I’m sensing some foreshadowing). The average scores were as follows:
- Overall: 591
- Standard: 61
- Cinema 4D: 65
- Tracking: 58
The fastest overall computer score pulled a benchmark score of 971. Coincidentally the winner, Bas van Breugel, used Puget’s After Effects hardware recommendations to build his machine a couple months ago. Side note: Check out Bas’s website, his team is doing some super cool automation work.
With the high score in hand we now had a single mission. Defeating the final Bas...
A Chat with Adobe
Before we could start building the ultimate After Effects computer, we needed to get some advice from the source. So we reached out to the Adobe After Effects team and asked if they would give us some guidance on building a render-horse. The team said yes, we did a happy dance, and we prepared for a very nerdy chat…
In the meeting we got a chance to interview Tim Kurkoski, a Product Owner for After Effects, along with Engineers Jason Bartell and Andrew Cheyne. Some snippets from that interview can be found by watching the video above.
In general, the After Effects team was very excited about their recent updates and shared their excitement for future After Effects releases. The team is constantly looking at ways to improve the performance of After Effects, and their excitement was contagious. The entire chat was about how to make After Effects run faster. Here are some takeaways from the meeting:
- Higher CPU speeds are better than more cores for After Effects (This is true right now, but multi-frame rendering should make CPUs with more cores perform much better)
- It’s best to have a high-capacity RAM and GPU. More is better.
- After Effects doesn’t use multiple GPUs. A single GPU with high vRAM is the goal.
- Memory (RAM) cache is always faster than disk cache
- There isn’t a clear winner to the AMD vs NVIDIA debate for GPUs.
- It really matters that your GPU drivers are up to date. (Editor's Note: Mac drivers are updated with iOS updates)
It should be noted that all of the information above may be out of date soon, as updates happen very frequently. Technology changes super quick and as a result recommendations will change.
With all this sweet knowledge in-hand, we were feeling inspired to build a computer. It’s time to take a field trip to Seattle… (insert adventure music mix-tape).
Building an Ultimate After Effects Computer with Puget Systems
We arrived in Seattle as giddy as can be. After grabbing a coffee, we drove down to Puget Systems—a custom computer manufacturer that specializes in workstations for content creators, studios, VFX artists, designers, and editors. Puget is basically Disneyland for computer nerds. As soon as you walk in the doors, it’s clear that Puget is testing, building, and geeking-out over computers to a level that is beyond anything we’ve ever seen.
From thermal scanners to benchmark laboratories, Puget’s meticulous attention to detail is seen in all their work. Matt and Eric at Puget were kind enough to give us an inside look at how the computers are built and tested.
After an incredible tour, we presented our findings from Adobe with Puget. As active computer testers, Puget confirmed everything we learned and helped us spec out the ultimate After Effects computer. So over a take-out tray full of Seattle’s world-famous chicken teriyaki, they shared exactly how they planned to build the Ultimate After Effects computer.
The complete specs can be found below, but we were curious: Could this machine beat Bas's score of 971.5? After the machine was built, we tested out our new system—named "Johnny Cache"—to see what he was made of. We sat at the computer with nervous anticipation. Had we come all the way to Seattle just to fall short of our goal?...
The benchmark test started and we waited. After a few minutes of anxious anticipation the score box popped up on the screen... 985. We did it.
Editor's Note: With updates to After Effects and newer hardware, we are actually now getting scores of ~1530 on the best configured systems. There has been some changes to our benchmark, but we are still looking at about a 40% performance gain with the latest hardware.
What is the Best Computer for After Effects?
Depending on when you're reading this article, you'll notice the specs below differ from the video above. That's because we are constantly updating the information to give you the best, most up-to-date advice.
Let's break down the hardware specs of this computer. Currently the fastest computer for After Effects is this custom-built “Johnny Cache” system from Puget Systems. Sure, there will be faster configurations that come out over the next few months and years, but for now here is the fastest After Effects computer that we know about:
JOHNNY CACHE 2.0: THE ULTIMATE AFTER EFFECTS COMPUTER
- CPU: AMD Ryzen 9 5950X 3.4GHz Sixteen Core 105W
- RAM: 128GB DDR4-3200 (4x32GB)
- GPU: NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3080 10GB
- Hard Drive 1: Samsung 980 Pro 500GB Gen4 M.2 SSD (OS/Applications)
- Hard Drive 2: Samsung 980 Pro 500GB Gen4 M.2 SSD (Disc Cache)
- Hard Drive 3: 1TB Samsung 860 EVO SATA SSD (Project Files)
- Price: $5441.16
This configuration is based on the original scope from the video above, but updated with modern tech. As you can see, the CPU speed is incredibly fast, even though it is ‘only’ 16 cores. It has a ton of RAM and a very beefy GPU. We also have multiple fast hard drives including an NVMe drive for the OS and disc cache. This allows us to place our project files, disk cache, and applications on separate hard drives, which will increase performance.
Best CPU now is going to be an AMD Ryzen 9 5950X 3.4GHz Sixteen Core 105W. The Ryzen 5900X and 5800X are actually nearly identical (for now), but the 5950X should get a big performance boost when MFR releases. We might find that Threadripper or Threadripper Pro will be even better, but that is hard to say until it launches. With the testing we have done in the beta so far, the 5950X is still king, but they could easily still make a couple improvements that will make Threadripper/Threadripper Pro even faster.
JEAN CLAUDE VAN RAM 2.0: ANOTHER GREAT AFTER EFFECTS COMPUTER
If you’re looking for a more entry-level option here’s a nice computer that also packs a punch.
- CPU: AMD Ryzen 7 5800X 3.8GHz Eight Core 105W
- RAM: Crucial 32GB DDR4-2666 (2x16GB)
- GPU: NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3070 8GB
- Hard Drive 1: Samsung 980 Pro 500GB Gen4 M.2 SSD (OS/Applications/Cache)
- Hard Drive 2: 500GB Samsung 860 EVO SATA SSD (Project Files)
- Price: $3547.82
Puget estimates this configuration to be very similar in straight performance compared to Johnny Cache with the current version of After Effects, but at a much lower price point. The large drop in RAM capacity is probably one of the biggest hits with this configuration over the “best” system above, as it won’t be able to store as many frames in RAM Previews—which will make the system have to recalculate many frames from scratch rather than being able to just pull them from cache. So, while it is similar in performance for rendering frames, it can be slower in practice if your projects can use more than 32GB of RAM.
In addition, this is not taking the upcoming multi-frame rendering feature into account. When that feature goes live, the increased core count on the AMD Ryzen 5950X 16 Core in the “best” system should give a significant performance boost over the AMD Ryzen 5800X.
Side Note: We had a lot of other After Effects related computer puns: Lebron Frames, Rambo Preview, Elon Mask, Keyframe Durant, AdobeWanKenobi… We can do this all day.
So you want to actually see your screen huh? Well you’re going to need a monitor. Puget stopped selling monitors to focus on building the best possible rigs, but they maintain an excellent list of suggested peripherals. The After Effects team also noted that there shouldn’t be any dip in performance from having dual monitors vs a single monitor.
If you want to get something a little nicer Puget also recommends the LG 32" 32UL750-W or the LG 27" 27UL650-W. The 27” version is sRGB 99% and rated better for color than all of the LG and Samsung monitors listed here.
If you want to get REALLY fancy you could look into a BenQ monitor. These monitors come in 100% Rec.709 and sRGB color space. If you do a lot of color correction or touch-up work these monitors are incredible for only a marginally more expensive price.
The Best After Effects Computer: A Downloadable Guide
To help you build the fastest computer possible we’ve created a free downloadable guide to assist when buying or building your next computer. This guide should be used as a reference and we’ll try to keep it updated with newer information as it comes available.
Buying vs Building a Computer
As you probably are well aware, you don’t have a to be a computer scientist to build a computer in the 21st century. Using online tutorials and guides (like the Puget recommendation page) you can source the best parts for you. However, we’ve found it incredibly helpful to go through partners like Puget to purchase a killer machine. This allows you to buy a professionally built machine at a good price point without the fear of messing something up. Plus, there are always people you can talk to if you run into any issues with your machine.
How Future Proof is this Information?
Short answer: It’s impossible to tell how long this information will be relevant.
One major evolution on the horizon is Multi-Frame Rendering (MFR). Multi-Frame Rendering allows After Effects to take advantage of multi-core CPUs by rendering in parallel. The current Beta provides Multi-Frame Rendering for faster exports via Render Queue. We expect anywhere from a 2 to 3X increase in performance depending on your system specs and specific project. Higher core count CPUs will get the biggest performance bump, but it is likely that a balanced CPU with a dozen or so cores will still be as fast or faster than the 64 core monsters in many cases. Since the CPU will be utilized much better, things like RAM and GPU speed may become more important as they can become a bottleneck if you aren't careful.
After Effects' architecture will almost certainly take more advantage of GPUs in the future, so it is possible that upgrading GPUs will help you increase the performance in the future. The great thing is that with a PC, you can do that at any time. With a Mac it ain’t so easy...
Mac or PC for After Effects?
After consulting with dozens of artists, engineers, software developers, and experts we have come to a simple conclusion: If speed and performance are important to you, get a PC for After Effects. Macs can be fast, but they will ultimately never perform as great as a similarly priced PC. PCs offer you the following advantages:
- Bigger Bang for Your Buck
- Faster Speeds
- More Customization
- Easier Maintenance
- Modular Hardware
Now this wouldn't be an ultimate list without a major caveat. While Mac's might lag (for now) in desktop performance, they have a secret weapon with the M1 chip. The new M1 is really, really interesting. It won't be able to keep up with desktops, but for someone looking for a laptop, the M1 is terrific and what we personally recommend right now over PC laptops.
We don't know how the M1 will handle After Effects yet since there isn't a native M1 version in beta. If you're looking for power and speed, go for a PC desktop. If you need to be mobile, keep Mac in mind.
Of course switching from a Mac to a PC will take a little bit of a learning curve, but you’re a smart cookie. You’ll figure it out.
It should be noted that Adobe does not prioritize development for PC over Mac.
What If I also use Premiere Pro?
If you use After Effects there’s also a pretty good chance that you edit your video in Premiere Pro. Unlike After Effects, Premiere Pro benefits from more CPU cores and a more powerful GPU. If you buy the 'Johnny Cache' system above you’ll see great results in Premiere, but if you are looking for something that will get the best average performance from both applications Puget has designed an awesome computer for you (see below).
Both After Effects computer configurations above are actually going to be really good for Premiere Pro and have plenty of power for most 4K editing workflows. The Johnny Cache system is actually almost identical to Puget’s Premiere Pro “4K Editing” recommended system. It's hard to beat the Johnny Cache computer at anywhere close to the price point.
Are you working on incredibly high-end editing projects? Well, if you are editing above 6K or doing heavier things like color grading, you will see a big jump by using this ridiculous system below. This is a system that is great for Premiere Pro and After Effects.
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: PREMIERE PRO + AFTER EFFECTS SYSTEM
- CPU: Intel Core i9 9960X 3.1GHz (4.0-4.5GHz Turbo) 16 Core 165W
- RAM: Crucial 128GB DDR4-2666 (8x16GB)
- GPU: NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Ti 116B Dual Fan
- Hard Drive 1: 512GB Samsung 860 Pro SATA SSD
- Hard Drive 2: 512GB Samsung 970 Pro PCI-E M.2 SSD
- Hard Drive 3: 1TB Samsung 860 EVO SATA SSD
- Price: $7060.03
Obviously this computer comes at a cost. But if maximum editing speed is important for you or your studio, this is the computer for you. This system will be ~15% faster in Premiere Pro compared to a less-expensive 9900K system, but it is going to be slightly slower in After Effects by about 10% despite the price increase. However, the 128GB of RAM is really, really nice for After Effects RAM previews.
What if I want to use Cinema 4D as well?
The Johnny Cache system will run Cinema 4D pretty well, but with “only” 16-cores your renders will be much slower than a Threadripper or Threadripper Pro system that can have as many as 64 cores, and if you're running Octane, Redshift, or any GPU renderer like that, you may want a beefier GPU or even multiple GPUs. The Johnny Cache system is designed for After Effects, so if you're doing lots of 3D, talk to Puget and they can spec you out a 3D BEAST. They literally have folks ready to help you design a computer for C4D.
What about a script like RenderGarden?
RenderGarden is a really interesting script that can utilize multiple cores to perform multi-threaded renders in After Effects. This can be a great script to maximize your render speeds, but keep in mind this only increases your final render time, not preview renders. Here's a cool demo of RenderGarden in action.
Again, we don't yet know how MFR will shake up a computer's ability to maximize efficiency running multiple cores. It should make plugins like RenderGarden obsolete for single systems since MFR will be able to utilize almost all your CPU cores natively. And, it will support preview renders, not just the final render.
RenderGarden will still be great for network rendering, though.
How to Make After Effects Run Faster: A Quick Checklist
We learned a ton from this entire experience. So to make the information more palatable here’s a quick summary of some ways to make After Effects faster:
- Get the Highest CPU Speed Possible, Individual core speed is better than more cores. When multi-frame rendering launches, CPU core count will become more important, but CPU speed will still be critical.
- You need to have as much RAM as possible, 32GB is good, 64GB is much better, and 128GB is even better-er
- A decent GPU is important, but you don’t have to go crazy with it. 8GB of vRAM is a great place to start.
- Keep your project files, disc cache, and application on separate hard drives.
- You need to have multiple fast hard drives.
- SSDs are great for your working project files and applications.
- Try to use an NVMe for the disc cache, and even for the OS drive if you can
- Don’t use an HDD when working on a project After Effects.
- Make sure your GPU drivers are up to date, and use the “Studio” drivers if you have an NVIDIA card..
- Get a PC not a Mac. Mac hardware is limited and difficult to upgrade.
THE END OF A JOURNEY
With (presumably) the world’s fastest After Effects computer in-hand we decided to end our quest by throwing Johnny Cache off a bridge, because it’s not about the destination it’s about the journey.
Just kidding, Puget actually randomly gave away the computer to Motion Designer Micah Brightwell of Jonesboro, Arkansas was the winner. Congrats Micah!
A HUGE Thank You
We’d like to give a huge thank you to Puget Systems and Adobe for helping us make this video and guide a reality. We’re always incredibly encouraged by the support and encouragement from the entire motion design community from artists to developers to hardware manufacturers. Hopefully you now feel inspired to upgrade your workstation or at the very least think more about how hardware affects your motion design experience. Remember, if you ever need a system that can walk the mograph line, Johnny Cache is here for you.
Tutorial Full Transcript Below 👇:
Joey Korenman (00:03): Oh, Hey, there. He listened to at school of motion, we use after effects every single day. And we were wondering, how fast can we make it go? If money were no object. And we had an army of PC building geniuses at our disposal, what kind of system could we build? What components would go into it. And frankly, which pieces make the biggest difference. And finally, how much would all of that cost? So to find out, we enlisted the help of our friends at Adobe, and then worked with Puget systems, a high-end PC builder based in Seattle. And we asked them to build us the ultimate after effects computer. We also brought in director Mike PECI, who is a Puget systems partner to shoot this, to make it look a lot sexier, which is why I look like Depeche mode threw up on me. You might be wondering why we flew all the way across the country to build a computer in Seattle. Well, we wanted to find out just how far you can push after effects in. We needed a total expert to help us Puget systems fit. The bill
Eric Brown (00:59): Do systems is a custom workstation manufacturer, and we believe the computer should be a pleasure purchasing. Oh, and they should just work. They should get your job done in stat, your way, having an actual bad-ass high-performance computer actu ally will allow you to stay in your creative process and do what you do. But
Joey Korenman (01:15): After effects is a MoGraph Swiss army knife, and it can take a lot of horsepower to get the most out of it. We had our audience want a benchmark developed by Puget systems to get a sense of how fast those artists machines were running. And then we asked Puget to try and beat the highest score, but before they could attempt that we wanted to know how to approach building the ultimate after effects.
Matt Bach (01:36): It's a machine. There are some things that are kind of generic. Um, every computer is going to have a power supply. Every computer is going to have a motherboard and those core components, we tend to not deviate too much, but then there's other things, the processor or the video cards, a lot of times storage, those things are really dependent on the program. Every program is different. We have to look at each one of those individually and figure out like, okay, how does the software actually use the hardware?
Joey Korenman (02:00): What do we need to think about when building a computer for after effects?
Matt Bach (02:03): What you really get out of PC is you get the choice of the components that are going to go into it. Because apple, you have a choice of like forcing the news, uh, versus with us, you could have hundreds of CPU's and then we dial that down to the four that are the best for after effects. And it'll be different for the best CPS that are for premier,
Joey Korenman (02:21): Andrew and Jason, two engineers who actually work on after effects confirm this for us,
Andrew Cheyne (02:26): Their core CPU speed is better than getting the one that has the most multi CPU capabilities
Jason Bartell (02:34): For the processor. You want the processor that has the fastest single core performance. So if that means going with a 10 core, rather than a 16 or something that
Matt Bach (02:41): Maybe the case, most of your Ram usage is going to be from Ram preview. So every frame you render it started into rent, and it does eventually right into your disc cash, but it's fairly slow to do that. And it doesn't always write all of those frames to the discussion. So having more Ram just means less frames that you're going to be rendering. The drives we normally recommend is about a 500 gig. [inaudible], it's just a standard SSD. Then we tend to do a, either a one to four terabyte media drive, and then a third drive will be an NBME and that's dedicated for your disc cash or scratch or that kind of stuff. The GPU and video acceleration in general, especially across Adobe products. Um, in some places it's very fleshed out. And then there's other ones like after effects and Lightroom, actually there it's fairly new. And so a lot of times it's more important about having a GPU that is good enough after
Joey Korenman (03:33): I currently take advantage of multiple GPU's. So if you're talking about a single machine, then plow all your money into a single
Matt Bach (03:39): GPU. So we tend to not go really high on the GPU for aftereffects.
Joey Korenman (03:44): While the assembly team got to work, putting everything together, Matt and Eric gave us a backstage tour showing us where they build and repair the PCs for their customers.
Matt Bach (03:54): After install, we bring it into QC where we check everything over and find all of the little things like, you know, loud fans or things you can't hear in the warehouse. Uh, so come on in. So we have like a thermal imaging camera. So that's checking for hot spots. Any issues that you can't see with the naked eye,
Joey Korenman (04:13): It's like a bad eighties music. I was just thinking it's like an ax head or something. They also showed us their laser cutter, which made us realize we needed a name for this aftereffects beast. And after all that work, it's an honor and a privilege to introduce to you Johnny Cash. Johnny has the highest specs of any system I've ever used, but do those impressive numbers actually turn into performance. We needed to run the benchmark to find out, all right, Matt, we'll, uh, we have a PC here, Johnny Cash purring like a kitten. So what,
Matt Bach (04:50): So now we're going to run our benchmark that we've developed here and we'll see exactly how fast it runs.
Joey Korenman (04:59): And then we waited and waited and wait. The highest score we got from our audience was 971.5, which made my brand new iMac pro score of 760.75 loop. Pretty wimpy as the moment of truth approached, Matt seemed pretty confident. Well, Matt, you successfully beat the hightest score that we got when we surveyed our audience. So good on you, man. That's not what you're doing. Well, this is definitely the fastest machine I have ever seen in my life. And I would like to play with it if that's cool with you, poke around. All right. So normally this is very, very, very laggy, uh, when I do this. So this comp has a ton of layers to it. There's a lot of expressions, a lot of things going on, let me ramp it and do it. It doesn't, it almost doesn't even have to render. It just sort of plays having used after effects for nearly two decades. I can honestly say that this system is by far the fastest and most responsive I've ever worked on. And what did this beast of a machine cost? Well, a lot less than my iMac pro it was actually a little depressing.
Joey Korenman (06:15): I'm going to have to get a PC. So there you go. Now you should have a really good idea of what you need to look for it. The next time you pick out or build a machine for after effects to recap for now, you're going to be buying a PC, sorry, Mac fans. If speed is the goal, then you'll be getting real chummy with windows processor speed, trumps core count. In most cases, if you're also using a lot of Adobe premier, it may be worth the trade off to have more cores, but for AEP purists, you want less cores, higher clock speeds. The type of Ram won't matter very much, but yet as much as you can, at least 32 gigabytes and 64 gigs will let you cash more of your Ram previews and speeding up your workload splurge for an SSD to work off of and consider investing in an NBME for your disc cash.
Joey Korenman (07:02): You'll get a big speed bump from faster drives. Get a modern gaming GPU, no need to go crazy and spend a thousand dollars on a GPU met for hardcore 3d learners. You'll want at least eight gigs of the Ram and more. If you're doing a lot of 4k eight K or VR work, make sure you click the link in the description of this video for a free downloadable guide that will help you build your own Johnny Cash. And if you're in the market for a new system, but don't want to build it yourself, please check out our friends at Puget systems. As you can tell, they do know what they're doing. I want to thank Adobe for their help. I want to thank Mike Petchey for making them look so sexy. And I want to thank you for watching happy rendering
Music (07:41): [outro music].